Immunomodulatory Effect of Artichoke ( Cynara scolymus ) on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Immunosuppression in Rats

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to evaluate the immunostimulant effects of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced immunotoxicity in rats. Seventy rats were divided into 7 groups. Group I: served as control . Group II and Group III: treated orally with olive oil and CCl4 at a dose 1ml/kg body weight (BW) twice weekly for 4 weeks respectively. Groups IV & V: orally treated with 100 & 200 mg/kg BW/day of artichoke powder respectively. Groups VI & VII: treated orally with artichoke powder 100 & 200 mg/kg BW/day respectively plus CCl4 1 ml/kg body weight (BW) twice a week for 4 weeks. Total and differential leukocyte counts, respiratory burst activity, phagocytes and bactericidal activities, in addition to lysozyme serum level were measured at the end of the experiment. Also serum level of cytokines, interlukine (IL) IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were estimated. Results showed that CCl4 significantly decreased total leukocyte count (TLC), lymphocyte count, respiratory burst and phagocytes activities, in addition of, IL-10 and IL-12 while neutrophils count, TNF-α and IL-6 were increased. Treatment with Artichoke alone significantly increased total leukocyte, and lymphocyte counts as well as phagocytes activities, IL-10 and IL-12 while TNF-α and IL-6 levels were decreased. Artichoke has significantly improved total and differential leukocytes count, bactericidal activity and serum lysozyme, also reduced elevation of TNF-α and IL-6 in CCl4 treated groups. Overall results proved that, artichoke powder has the prospect to counter measure the immunosuppressive effect induced by CCl4 toxicity. Keywords: Artichoke, Carbon tetrachloride, Cytokines, Immunomodulatory rat.